|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A STREDNEJ EURÓPY|
|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A
STREDNEJ EURÓPY. VYDÁVA HISTORICKÝ ÚSTAV SLOVENSKEJ AKADÉMIE VIED.
Historický časopis, 54, 3/2006
O B S A H
Š t ú d i e
Miller, Jaroslav: Problém integrity: Úvaha o sociálních konfliktech
v raněnovověkých městech a městské autonomii v kontextu reformace ... 385
M a t e r i á l y
Schvarc, Michal: Vývoj a zmeny organizačnej štruktúry
Deutsche Partei 1938 - 1945 ... 471
Janek, István: Mihaly Károlyi a usporiadanie československo-maďarských vzťahov v rokoch 1945 - 1948 ... 521
R e c e n z i e
Dvořáková, D.: Rytier a jeho kráľ. Stibor zo Stiboríc a Žigmund Luxemburský (Miroslava Hlavačková)
G L O S Y - B I B L I O G R A F I A - K R O N I K A
C O N T E N T S
A r t i c l e s
Miller, Jaroslav: The Problem of Integrity: Consideration
of Social Conflicts in Early Modern Towns and Urban Autonomy in the Context of the Reformation
M a t e r i a l s
Schvarc, Michal: The Development and Changes
in the Organizational Structure of the Deutsche Partei, 1938 - 1945 ... 471
Janek, István: Mihaly Károlyi and the Settlement of Czechoslovak-Hungarian Relations in the Period 1945-1948 ... 521
R E V I E W - A N N O T A T I O N S - B I B L I O G R A P H Y - C H R O N I C L E
I N H A L T
S t u d i e n
Miller, Jaroslav: Problem der Integrität: Eine Betrachtung
über soziale Konflikte in den frühneuzeitlichen Städten und Stadtautonomien im Kontext der Reformation
M a t e r i a l i e n
Schvarc, Michal: Entwicklung und Veränderungen der Organisationsstruktur
der Deutschen Partei 1938 - 1945 ... 471
Janek, István: Mihaly Károlyi und die Regelung der tschechoslowakisch-ungarischen Beziehungen in der Jahren 1945 - 1948 ... 521
K R I T I K - G L O S S E N - B I B L I O G R A P H I E - C H R O N I K
MILLER, J.: The Problem of Integrity: Consideration of Social Conflicts in Early Modern Towns and Urban Autonomy in the Context of the Reformation.
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 385–418, Bratislava.
The comparative study is concerned with the question of the integrity of the medieval and early modern urban community, using the example of the periodically repeated conflicts within towns between councils and communities, presented by the participants as disputes over town constitutions. This aspect was also strongly manifested in the course of the Reformation movement. Introduction of the Reformation in a town was usually legitimized by appeal to the constitutional principles of an urban republican system. The first half of the text consists of a detailed discussion of the motives and nature of the dispute between the communities and political elites of towns, while the second part of the study presents an explanatory model, which should grasp the connection between these conflicts and the Reformation. Four key questions are the subject of interest: What was essence of the disputes between communities and town governments? What were the common and specific features and results of these disputes? What was the role of the Reformation in the conflicts within towns? What was the impact of the Reformation on urban autonomy?
History, conflict within towns, town constitution, Reformation.
VÖRÖS, L.: The image of the Slovaks in the North Hungarian Magyar regional press in the years 1914-1918 and its changes.
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 419–450, Bratislava.
In this study the author analyses the modes and changes of representation of the Slovak speaking population of the north-western part of the Hungarian Kingdom in the regional Magyar press during the years of the Great War. The Hungarian nationalist discourse of the period was determined by the predominant ideology of the Hungarian political nation, which was represented as the only nation within the borders of the Hungarian Kingdom. The non-Hungarian populace of the Kingdom was accordingly represented in ways, which conformed to this idea of the sole and unitary Hungarian nation. The present article is based on analyses of five Magyar regional newspapers (issued in mainly Slovak inhabited areas), in which the author explores the usage of various categories (such as “people/folk”, “nationality”, “nation”, as well as notions of “loyalty”, “treacherousness”, and “Pan-Slavism”) and stereotypes as they were utilized in the representations of the Slovaks. The author argues that the represented images of the Slovaks before and during the Great War were neither unvarying nor inadvertent (as is usually assumed by historians), but that they were contingent and variable. Distinctive representations of the Slovaks (as a “people/folk” and/or a “nationality”, and eventually as a “nation”) were contingent upon the prevailing Hungarian nationalist ideology (within which there were shifts from the emphasis on the “etatist” to the “ethnic” domain in the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century), as well as upon particular events in domestic and foreign political affairs.
Social history. Representations of the Slovaks in Hungarian nationalist discourse. Hungarian nationalism in the 19th century. Hungarian regional newspapers during the Great War.
KLABJAN, B.: Italy and Slovakia in the War. The Influence of Italian Fascism on Slovakia before and during the Second World War.
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 451–470, Bratislava.
The material study points to the consequences of the fact that up to now neither Italian nor Slovak historiography has concerned itself with the influence of Italian fascism on the Slovak political scene before and during the Second World War, although also in the Slovak case, this type of right wing totalitarian ideology very rapidly became established and served as a significant model for rightist, conservative, pro-fascist and corporatist thinking. Italian archive materials reveal the variety of routes by which Italian fascist doctrines could spread into the successor states of the former Habsburg Monarchy. Mainly with the help of documents from the Archivio Centrale dello Stato in Rome and the Archivio Storico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, the author analyses the activity of the organizations and individuals oriented towards Slovakia. He points to the specific features of their cultural activities and in connection with this, he also poses the question of how far the fascist ideology spread in the Slovak cultural and political environment under external pressure and how far it happened independently.
History. Italy. Slovakia. Italy and Slovakia in the War. The Influence of Italian Fascism on Slovakia before and during the Second World War.
SCHVARC, M.: The Development and Changes in the Organizational Structure of the Deutsche Partei, 1938 – 1945.
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 471–502, Bratislava.
In the period from autumn 1938 to the dissolution of the Slovak state in April 1945, the Deutsche Partei (DP) was the only permitted organization of the Germans living in Slovakia. It was an organization with a pyramidal structure and strict hierarchical division based on the ideas of German national socialism. During the researched period, the DP strove to achieve total domination of the German minority of almost 150 thousand people by thorough application of the Nazi ideology. All German societies and corporations were gradually united and incorporated into its organization. The DP was not a political party in the narrower sense of the word, but an organization in the sense of a Nazi „Volksgemeinschaft“. Apart from the actual political party, the para-military Freiwillige Schutzstaffel (FS) and the Deutsche Jugend youth organization had firm places in its structure. They were organized according to the models of the SA and SS and Hitler-Jugend in the Reich. The DP also included various associate organizations, including trade unions and a teachers’ organization, following examples in the German Reich. In the course of the period, the DP underwent relatively dynamic development, characterized by various organizational and personnel changes. Precisely this problem is the subject of this study.
History. Slovakia. The Development and Changes in the Organizational Structure of the Deutsche Partei, 1938 – 1945.
LACKO, M.: Temporarily under the Wehrmacht: the Slovak Artillery Regiment 31 on the Eastern Front (February – July 1942).
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 503–520, Bratislava.
Apart from the Mobile Division (Rýchla divízia) and Security Division (Zaisťovacia divízia), the Slovak Artillery Regiment 31 (Delostrelecký pluk 31) operated in the USSR as part of the Wehrmacht. Artillery Regiment 31 was detached from the Security Division on 1st February 1942 on the initiative of the Germanophil commander of Czech origin lieutenant colonel Karel Pichel. It advanced by the route Žitomír – Kiev – Kharkov on its own wheels in the coldest weather to its assigned place about 50 km east of Kharkov. Here it was placed on an exposed section of the southern part of the Eastern Front. The operations led by Marshal Wilhelm von Bock had the aim of breaking up the Soviet defence of the region and preparing the ground for an extensive summer offensive into the Caucasus. However, the regiment did not participate in the fighting for long. During the first powerful attack by the Soviet forces under Marshal Semjon. K. Timoshenko on 12th May 1942, the regiment was broken up and lost all its artillery. However, the paradox remains that the Slovak artillery men, involuntarily detached from the Slovak army, fought better than the Germans themselves. On the other hand, the break up of the regiment saved its members from assignment to Stalingrad and led to their return to the ranks of the Slovak army: the Mobile Division in the Caucasus.
History. Second World War. Eastern Front. Slovak army.Slovak units in the USSR.Artillery Regiment 31.
JANEK, I.: Mihaly Károlyi and the Settlement of Czechoslovak-Hungarian Relations in the Period 1945-1948.
Historický časopis, 54, 3, 2006, pp. 521–536, Bratislava.
The study deals with those activities of Mihály Károlyi for the sake of Hungarians living in Czechoslovakia between 1945 and 1948. From Hungary’s neighbours the worst relationship was that with Czechoslovakia in 1945 that stems from the minority policy of the Czechoslovak government: persecution of Highland Hungarians. According to the government program announced by President Beneš on 5th April 1945 in Košice Hungarians were not allowed to be members of political or mass organizations and could not work as civil servants. He could not forgive the Czechoslovak leaders that after the Second World War they did not support the peaceful settlement of the East-European situation and the process leading to democratization, but on the contrary, they used such methods against the Hungarian minority that were unknown in Europe before fascism. He was rightfully offended when he was not appointed to be a member of the delegation to the Peace Conference in Paris and that later he could participate on it as an advisor and not as the leader of the delegation. Károlyi tried to influnce the fate of Hungarians in Czechoslovakia during the peace treaty negotiations in Paris sending personal letters to President E. Beneš and minister of foreign affairs Jan Masaryk even in February 1948 but his effort to improve the situation of the Hungarian minority failed. Károlyi realized that instead of a bad automatic response full of prejudice, Hungary needed economic and political cooperation which is shown by the fact that he always spoke against the deportation of Germans living in Czechoslovakia, and in all of his writings and acts he tried to prevent these acts.
History. Mihaly Károlyi and the Settlement of Czechoslovak-Hungarian Relations in the Period 1945-1948.
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