|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A STREDNEJ EURÓPY|
|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A
VYDÁVA HISTORICKÝ ÚSTAV SLOVENSKEJ AKADÉMIE VIED
ISSN 0018-2575 (print)
ISSN 2585-9099 (online)
Historický časopis (ročník 67), 2019, č. 5
C O N T E N T S
A r t i c l e s
Zupka, Dušan: Forms of Communication of the
political elites in medieval Central Europe (Hungary, Austria and the Czech
Lands, 1250–1350) ... 785
R e v i e w s
Fundárková, Anna: A baroque Aristocrat (Tünde
Lengyelová) ... 905
K R I T I K – G L O S S E N – B I B L I O G R A P H I E – C H R O N I K
ZUPKA, Dušan. Forms of Communication of the Political Elites in Medieval Central Europe (Hungary, Austria and the Czech Lands, 1250–1350).
Historický časopis, 2019, 67, 5, pp. 785-808, Bratislava.
The aim of this article is to give an account of the ritualized ways of communication of the ruling communities of the high and later Middle Ages in the Central European region. It focuses on the neighbouring realms of Bohemia, Hungary and Austria in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (c. 1250 – c. 1350). It argues that the ruling communities were formed from diverse political groups, most prominently represented by the ruler and his entourage (dynasty, court) on the one hand and the elites (both lay and spiritual) on the other. The rule (lordship) over a particular realm was a mixture of co-operation, competition and compromise between these groups. Secondly, these political communities therefore felt the constant need for public representation of their status, rank and symbolic role within the society. Effective ways to express belonging to a political group included a range of symbols, gestures and specific rhetoric.
Key words: Communication. Ruling elites. Power. Central Europe. Rituals.
KOWALSKÁ, Eva. Business Directed by an Aristocrat: the Establishment and First Years of the Textile Factory at Uhrovec (1845–1851).
Historický časopis, 2019, 67, 5, pp. 809-837, Bratislava.
The (Fein) Tuchfabrik at Uhrovec was established in a region that apparently lacked material and infrastructure pre-conditions. However, the project had another comparative advantage – the strong capital of the owner, a rich aristocrat with connections that enabled him to successfully establish himself in the economic space of Upper Hungary. Count Karl Zay was a supporter of liberalism and of progressive business aims such as railways and steam ships. The factory had various company shops and a network of customers across the Kingdom of Hungary. In the revolutionary period it began to profit from supplying the army, county units and the gendarmerie or police. However, state orders were also a risk factor in the form of unrealistic conditions from the side of customers, which gradually began to threaten the profitability of the business. At the beginning of this cooperation, the factory immediately began to make losses, which began to threaten its functioning. The study analyses the process of establishment of the factory, the financial questions of building and equipping it, the questions of personnel and the material functioning as well as the social security of the workers, a large proportion of whom were women.
Key words: Kingdom of Hungary. Uhrovec. Karl Zay. History of manufacturing. Textile industry. 19th century.
ARPÁŠ, Róbert. The Role of Faith in a Social Struggle Using the Example of the Pastoral Letter of the Slovak Bishops of November 1924.
Historický časopis, 2019, 67, 5, pp. 839-849, Bratislava.
The social movement that developed in Slovakia after the end of the Great War succeeded in capturing the left-wing parties - Social Democracy and the Communist Party. In particular, communists in the ideological struggle did not hesitate to use the alleged parallels of communist ideas with Christianity. Thanks to this tactic, they were also successful among religious populations. Therefore, efforts to establish Christian-oriented trade unions in Slovakia were not too successful. Thus, in November 1924, through the Pastoral Letter, the Slovak bishops entered the conflict and watched with concern the rising anticlerical movement in Czechoslovakia.
Keywords: Pastoral Letter. Slovakia. Ideological conflict. Trade unions. Social interests.
ZAVACKÁ, Marína. Adventures of Academic Mobility: Roman Jakobson in Slovakia.
Historický časopis, 2019, 67, 5, pp. 851-878, Bratislava.
The study focuses on the repeated visits of Russian-born Harvard linguist Roman Jakobson to Slovakia. The author traces Jakobson’s Slovak contacts from the interwar period up to 1968. Based on analysis of secret police documents and memoir literature, the research offers an insight into contemporary academic and cultural life in 20th century Czechoslovakia. Jakobson’s first Slovak contacts in the 1920s were linked to his activities in the Prague Soviet legation and the Charles University. In the 1930s he visited Bratislava more frequently, while teaching at Brno University. During the Stalinist era in Czechoslovakia, a number of his friends and colleagues were politically prosecuted. Only in 1957, was he able to return to Czechoslovakia for Slavonic Studies conferences in Prague and Olomouc, using this occasion to give a lecture also in Bratislava. In the approaching wave of hate-campaign against local “unreliable intellectuals” he was denounced as a “cosmopolitan” and “Western agent”. Subsequent attempts for Jakobson’s academic and public rehabilitation, urged by his Czechoslovak friends, became a reality only during his visit in 1968. The presentation ceremony of the Golden medal of the Slovak Academy of Sciences to Roman Jakobson was scheduled in Bratislava on August 21, 1968, the day of the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact.
Key words: Roman Jakobson. Structuralism. Linguistics. Slovakia. Czechoslovakia. Communism. Travel.
MICHÁLEK, Slavomír. The American Congress and Czechoslovak Monetary Gold, 1980–1981.
Historický časopis, 2019, 67, 5, pp. 879-904. Bratislava.
The history of the Czechoslovak monetary gold began to be written at the end of the 1930s at the time of the mutilation and break up of the Czechoslovak Republic. The gold was forcibly and illegally seized by Nazi Germany. At the end of the Second World War, the American army of occupation found it in salt mines at Merkers in Germany with gold from other countries. It was only in 1982 that an adequate part was returned to the vaults of the State Bank of Czechoslovakia in Prague. Soon after the Second World War, the USA, Great Britain and France established the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold on the basis of decisions by the Paris Reparations Conference. Its task was to secure the just and proportional return of recovered gold to all the affected countries including Czechoslovakia. During the following decades of the Cold War, gold was a regular subject of conflict, dispute and negotiations, especially between Washington and Prague. The agreements reached were cancelled by one side or the other, and they repeatedly went back to the beginning. This study is directed towards the period 1980–1981, when the United States Congress significantly intervened in the question of the return of the Czechoslovak gold.
Key words: Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold. Lester Wolff. Compensation for nationalized property. Czechoslovak monetary gold, the US Congress and Czechoslovakia, 1980–1981.
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