|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A STREDNEJ EURÓPY|
|VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A
VYDÁVA HISTORICKÝ ÚSTAV SLOVENSKEJ AKADÉMIE VIED
ISSN 0018-2575 (print)
ISSN 2585-9099 (online)
Historický časopis (ročník 69), 2021, č. 3
O B S A H
Ú v o d
Š t ú d i e
Druga, Marek: Benediktíni a počiatky vodných mlynov v Uhorsku (K otázke
kláštorného hospodárenia v 11. – 12. storočí) ... 387
H i s t o r i o g r a f i a
R e c e n z i e
Benková, Eva: Poddaní na Stupavskom panstve v ranom novoveku.Učebné texty k
hospodárskym a sociálnym dejinám 1. (Daniela Hrnčiarová) ... 561
C O N T E N T S
I n t r o d u c t i o n
Hallon, Ľudovít: One-theme issue on the theme The role of money in the history of Central Europe from Middle Ages to the present ... 385
A r t i c l e s
Druga, Marek: The Benedictines and the Beginnings
of Watermills in Hungary. (On the Issue of the Monastic Economy in the 11th–12th
century) ... 387
H i s t o r i o g r a p h y
Švorc, Peter: Ladislav Tajták: “I really don’t like talking about my age and number of birthdays...” (27 April 1921 – 25 December 2020) ... 545
R E V I E W – A N N O T A T I O N S – B I B L I O G R A P H Y – C H R O N I C L E
I N H A L T
E i n l e i t u n g
Hallon, Ľudovít: Monotematic Nummer über Die Rolle des Geldes in der Wirtschaft Mitteleuropas vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart ... 385
S t u d i e n
Druga, Marek: Benediktiner und die Anfänge der
Wassermühlen in Ungarn. Zur Frage der klösterlichen Wirtschaftsführung im
11.–12. Jahrhundert ... 387
G e s c h i c h t s s c h r e i b u n g
Švorc, Peter: Ladislav Tajták: „... Ehrlich gesagt rede ich nicht gerne über mein Alter und Geburtstage...“ (27. April 1921–25. Dezember 2020) ... 545
K R I T I K – G L O S S E N – B I B L I O G R A P H I E – C H R O N I K
DRUGA, Marek. The Benedictines and the Beginnings of Watermills in Hungary. (On the Issue of the Monastic Economy in the 11th–12th century).
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 387–416, Bratislava.
The study examines the historical backround of the origins of watermills in the Kingdom of Hungary. The paper is directed towards the process of spreading the watermill from the 11th to 13th centuries, with emphasis on question of the impact and role of Benedictine monks in this process. The work tries to compare the conclusions of older historians, and to re-evaluate the informative value of the sources. The aim of the work is to try to estimate the date of construction of the first watermills and identify the period when watermills became common in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Key words: Watermill. Benedictines. Middle Ages. Donation. Lieges.
KIANIČKA, Daniel Haas. The Counts of the Mining and Mint Chamber at Kremnica and Chamber Count Konrad Rolner (1440–1446).
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 417–438, Bratislava.
The mint marks on medieval Hungarian coins can be used to determine the chronological order in which the coins were minted. It is necessary though, to start with the years of reigns of the monarchs, the iconography of the coins, as well as written sources referring to the Chamber Counts administering the Royal Mining and Coin Chambers. This is important for economic history, numismatic research, and the dating of archaeological finds. One of the medieval Chamber Counts of Kremnica was Konrád Rolner. He held this position not only between 1440 and 1443, as stated in most professional literature sources, but also between 1444 and 1446, as indicated by several documents. There are also references to the Chamber Count Konrád Polner, which are based on the misreading of his surname. Its correct form is Rolner. Chamber Count Konrád Polner is therefore identical with the Count Konrád Rolner. Gold florins bearing the mint mark K - R + can thus be assigned to Konrád Rolner.
Key words: Middle Ages. Chamber Counts. Kremnica. Chamber Count Konrád Rolner (1440–1446). Mint Marks. Hungarian Coins.
GAUČÍK, Štefan. Beyond philanthropy. The first years of the Pressburger Sparkassa (1842–1849).
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 439–464, Bratislava.
This study deals with the circumstances of the establishment of the Pressburger Sparkassa as well as its business activities and business ambitions in the period 1842–1849. It was precisely in the Hungarian context that in the first half of the 19th century their „hybrid“ forms were created. These institutions were on the borders of profit and philanthropy and their social mission also expanded gradually. Under the particular Hungarian conditions, the savings – banks grew rapidly into more or less dominant bank depositories led by the most influential and wealthiest businessmen, however, they observed in their titles the word: “savings – bank” for a long time. The Pressburger Sparkassa became a pioneer in spreading the business principle in Hungarian banking. This financial institution was initiated in the city’s society by generally recognized personalities, merchants and aristocrats, representatives of the local mainly German and to a lesser extent Hungarian elite in 1841. In fact, it acted as a depository bank from the beginning on. Foreign impulses played an important role as well as domestic initiatives, the promotion of the ideas of savings and banking, and last but not least, the business experience of Pressburg traders.
Key words: Banking History. Credit. Kingdom of Hungary. Bratislava (Pressburg). Pressburger Sparkassa.
TURÓCI, Martin. The Kremnica Mint during the Great Economic Crisis and the 1930s.
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 465–490, Bratislava.
The study is devoted to the hitherto little studied problem of the development of the Kremnica Mint during the great economic crisis of 1930–1934, and the subsequent post-crisis period up to 1938. The author, whose study is based on more than two years of archive research, considers mainly the economic development of a business with a monopoly on the production of small coins for circulation in inter-war Czechoslovakia. Research has shown that during the great economic crisis, the economic development of the Kremnica Mint substantially differed from that of other Czechoslovak businesses. In contrast to the general economic development in Czechoslovakia, the years of the great economic crisis brought the mint stability and prosperity. The crisis affected the mint later, in 1934–1936, during the post-crisis period characterized by gradual recovery of the economy. The business definitively overcame the unfavourable development in 1938 thanks to the general revival of the Czechoslovak economy.
Key words: Great Economic Crisis. Kremnica Mint. Coinage. Czechoslovak Crown. Unemployment. Czechoslovakia.
MIČKO, Peter. The formation of the organizational structure and activities of Slovak paper and cellulose com-panies in the years 1939–1945.
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 491–519, Bratislava.
Wood and wood product commerce was a very important area of the foreign trade of the Czechoslovak Republic and later the Slovak Republic (1939–1945). As part of the state busi-ness activities the trade in cellulose and paper products was also an important aspect of it. Af-ter the change in the geopolitical conditions in Central Europe and the establishment of the Slovak state, cellulose and paper trade organizations were formed in Slovakia. Gradually, agreements were concluded between individual businesses, which shaped the organizational structure of companies and specific rules of their activities. The agreements included securing the sale of contracted cellulose inland and abroad, representing and protecting the interests of the Slovak cellulose industry, and contacts with foreign organizations. The conclusion of an agreement also meant the redistribution of export quotas for individual companies.
Key words: Slovakia. Germany. Trade. Relations. Paper and cellulose companies. Contin-gents. Prices.
HOLEC, Roman. Ervin Hexner (Defender of Cartels and Forgotten Economist).
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 521–544, Bratislava.
Ervin Hexner (1893–1968), a native of Liptov, senior lecturer at Comenius University in Bratislava, lawyer and economist, occupies the centre of attention in this text. He applied himself not only in the academic world as an expert on cartels, but also in financial and economic practice, both in Czechoslovakia and at universities in the USA after he emigrated in 1939. He also actively participated in the Bretton Woods Conference, where he still represented Czechoslovakia, and he held important positions in the International Monetary Fund. His extensive publishing activities reacted to economic processes in Slovakia, Czechoslovakia, Europe and the world. He undoubtedly was and still is the most translated and studied economist from Slovakia.
Key words: Ervín Hexner. Czechoslovak Economy. Slovak Economic Interests. Cartels. Bretton Woods. International Monetary Fund.
ŠVORC, Peter. Ladislav Tajták: “I really don’t like talking about my age and number of birthdays...” (27 April 1921 – 25 December 2020).
Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 3, pp. 545–560, Bratislava.
Professor Ladislav Tajták (27 April 1921 – 25 December 2020) was one of the leading representatives of Slovak historical science in the second half of the 20th century. His research was oriented towards the history of Eastern Slovakia in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, with special emphasis on the nationality problems of this multi-ethnic region, and on emigration to the USA. The series of studies he published on these themes still serve as basic starting points for new research by his successors. As chairman of the Eastern Slovak branch of the Slovak Society of History at the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ladislav Tajták organized a whole series of academic conferences and seminars with the aim of stimulating research activities and propagating the historical science in the wider lay environment. In the 1950s and 1960s, he helped to build up the Department of History at the Faculty of Philosophy of P. J. Šafárik in Prešov (now Prešov University. As a university teacher, he encouraged critical thinking, consistent study of archive materials and conscientious work with written text among his students. He also did this as a member of the editorial board of the Historický časopis (Historical Journal) published by the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. He received many honours and awards, but the one he especially valued was the title “Righteous among the Nations” granted by the Yad Vashem Memorial in Jerusalem.
Key words: Ladislav Tajták. Slovak Historiography. Eastern Slovakia. Slovak History. Slovak Society of History. Historický Časopis.
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